The Eleventh Annual
Ohio Undergraduate Psychology Conference

Siegler

1997's 11th conference was hosted by Muskingum College. The keynote speaker was Robert S. Siegler, Professor of Psychology at Carnegie-Mellon University in Pittsburgh. The author of the books "Children's Thinking: What develops?" and "Children's Thinking (2nd Edition)" and the co-author of "How Children Discover New Strategies", he has also published extensively in numerous developmental psychology journals.


1997 CONFERENCE PRESENTATIONS

SESSION # 1 Cambridge Hall, Room 138
9:00-9:15 a.m.
A LONGITUDINAL STUDY OF ELEMENTARY SCHOOL CHILDREN'S MEMORY STRATEGIES. Brandie Balwanz, Muskingum College.
In 1996, third and fourth grade children completed three sort-recall trials with different sets of categorizable items. All children were previously tested with the same task in 1994. The strategies of rehearsal, sorting, and clustering were recorded. Children showed significant increases in recall, sorting, and clustering across time (1994 to 1996), and significant increases in rehearsal and recall across grade. Significant correlations were found between recall and strategies by time of testing. These longitudinal results supported previous cross-sectional results showing that strategy use and recall improve with age. The higher correlation between strategy use and recall for older children also suggested a utilization deficiency for younger children.

9:15-9:30 a.m.
THE EFFECTS OF CHILDREN'S LITERATURE ON THE GENDER STEREOTYPES OF PRESCHOOL GIRLS AND BOYS. Sarah Kate Bearman, Kenyon College.
The study was designed to test the hypothesis that gender content in children's literature could have an impact on the way preschool boys and girls evaluated women and men. A doll-choice pre-test was used to assess the gender stereotypes of 24 boys and 24 girls. A week later, children were read 1 of 3 stories; either a story which represented males and females in stereotypical roles, a story which reversed the gender roles for females and males, or a declassified story which showed males and females as sharing behaviors and beliefs across gender classification. Following the story, children were again evaluated in terms of their stereotypes. As predicted, the declassified story produced the least stereotyped responses overall, and the stereotyped story produced the most stereotyped responses for both boys and girls. All three story conditions varied significantly from one another. An interaction effect between gender and story was also found to be significant, and girls were significantly more egalitarian after the declassified story than the boys, while boys were significantly less stereotyped after the reversal story than the girls. Girls and boys also varied significantly on their responses to masculine and feminine stereotypes depending on which story they heard. Boys showed less stereotyping on the masculine items after the reversal story than after the declassified story. Theoretical implications of these results are discussed.

9:30-9:45
THE EFFECTS OF MOODS AND EMOTIONS ON MEMORY. Carlton Donahoo, Baldwin Wallace College.
Many studies have shown that emotions and moods have some type of effect on the recall of memories. In this study 44 subjects were separated into two different groups that viewed either a pleasant (positive) video or a violent (negative) video. The first group consisted of 23 psy 100 students that viewed a video that was pleasant in content. The second group consisted of 21 psy 100 students that viewed a video that was violent in content. The hypothesis of the current study predicted that the subjects that viewed the pleasant video clip would have better recall on their video than the subjects that viewed the violent video clip. To the contrary of the hypothesis the findings determined that the subjects that viewed the video that was violent in content had better recall than the subjects viewed the video that was pleasant in content.

9:45-10:00
TIME AND MISINFORMATION EFFECTS ON OPINION AND MEMORY FOR EVENTS SHOWN IN A VIDEO. Marianne Liptak, Muskingum College. The effects of misinformation on opinion and memory for details in a British sitcom were analyzed under eight different conditions. Eighty-eight undergraduates watched the comedy, answered questions to assess initial memory and opinion, read a critical review of the show and were retested seven days later. Half received reviews that were either negative or positive and contained correct or incorrect information immediately after initial testing, while the others read the reviews just before the retest. While none of the groups differed in overall memory for correct details, misinformation was readily implanted by false details presented in critical reviews and this effect was enhanced with the passage of time. Opinions were reliably changed depending on when the misinformation was presented, whether the review was positive and whether or not it contained false details.


SESSION # 2 Cambridge Hall, Room 139

9:00-9:15 a.m.
EFFECTS OF SELF-ESTEEM AND INTROVERSION-EXTRAVERSION ON NEGATIVE MOOD REGULATION. Kristin Bosc, Ohio Dominican College.
Individuals engage in various strategies to alleviate negative moods. The present study examined the effects of self-esteem (SE) and introversion-extraversion (IE) on the use of a negative mood regulation strategy called mood-incongruent recall, in which positive memories are generated to counteract negative moods. Forty-seven under graduate subjects completed measures of SE and IE, and at a later date, were exposed to a negative mood-inducing video, following which they generated autobiographical memories from their high school years. The results showed that introverts and extraverts did not differ in their use of mood-incongruent recall, and that individuals low in SE were more likely to recall positive (incongruent ) memories than were individuals high in SE. The implications of these findings are discussed.

9:15-9:30 a.m.
THE EFFECT OF QUESTION WORDING ON SELF-ESTEEM INVENTORY SCORES. Karrie Kennard, John Carroll University.
This study concerns the affect of language priming on self-esteem. The priming takes place through two forms of a self-esteem scale: (a) questions phrased positively (b) questions phrased negatively. Thirty-seven college students completed a baseline self-esteem test before receiving one of three forms of a second self-esteem test, either of the primes or the control. The test form did not have a significant effect on an individual's score. Nor were there significant Esteem Level x Test Form interactions.

9:30-9:45 a.m.
AN INVESTIGATION OF THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN SELF-ESTEEM OF COLLEGE STUDENTS, PARENTAL NURTURANCE AND ACADEMIC EXPECTATIONS AND ATTRIBUTIONS. Melanie Morgan, Muskingum College.
Researchers have focused on self-esteem as a crucial element in the development of personality. The present study was designed to explore whether parental nurturance is related to self-esteem and the relationship between self-esteem and academic expectations and attributions of students. A total of 47 first-year college students participated in the study. Participants were tested prior to and following an evaluation of their first semester performance. They received self-esteem, parental nurturance, academic expectation and academic attribution surveys. It was hypothesized that students high in self-esteem would have higher perceptions of parental nurturance and higher academic expectations and internal attributions for successes and failures. While none of the results were statistically significant, participant results were in the direction of the expected hypothesis.

9:45-10:00 a.m.
THE EFFECT OF AN INDIVIDUAL'S SELF-ESTEEM ON THE TREATMENT OF OUT GROUP MEMBERS. Angela Terella, John Carroll University.
This study examined how the interaction of performance outcome (i.e., success vs. failure) and self-esteem effects the judgments of in group or OUT GROUP members in a simulated trial setting. After completing the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, participants were randomly assigned to experience a task success or a task failure. Prior to reading trial evidence (cf., Bodenhausen, 1988) background information containing the race of the defendant was presented. Participants rated the degree of guilt of the defendant and recommended a sentence. Results showed that participants who experienced failure gave the defendant a stricter sentence than those who experienced success. This suggests that personal success of failure influences the tolerance of OUT GROUP members.


SESSION # 3 Cambridge Hall, Room 120

9:00-9:15 a.m.
SMOKING AND LEVELS OF STRESS. Sarah Carolin, Baldwin Wallace College.
Smoking has been a topic of study for a number of years. In the past ten years the research has doubled, perhaps due to the fact that an increasing number of people have begun to smoke, and most of them are women. The purpose of this study was to determine if stress is related to the likelihood of smoking. A subjective stress test was administered following a stressful task or a filler task (to serve as a control). No significant differences were found between males and females on dimensions of smoking or stress, and no significant differences were found between smokers and nonsmokers on their level of stress. Significant differences were found in the manipulation check, that is, those in the experimental group scored higher on the stress scale than those in the control group.

9:15-9:30 a.m.
THE EFFECTS OF CAFFEINE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF COGNITIVE TASKS. Himmat Rana, Muskingum College.
Caffeine is a central nervous system stimulant that has been shown to improve attention and mental alertness. The purpose of the present study was to further investigate cognitive enhancing effects of caffeine. Fifty five college students were randomly assigned to either a placebo group (vitamin C), low dose (200mg) caffeine group, or high dose (400mg) caffeine group. Subjects completed the Profile of Mood States Questionnaire immediately following drug administration and again at the completion of testing. Thirty min after receiving the drug, they performed a mental rotation of objects task on the computer. Caffeine reduced the time required to make perceptual judgements, but had no effect on accuracy. Overall, males performed faster than females on the task. As the degrees of rotation of the figure increased, more time was required and accuracy decreased.

9:30-9:45 a.m.
EVALUATIONS OF INSTRUCTORS BY FIRST YEAR STUDENTS. Ginger Fairbanks, Muskingum College.
Discrimination of all types has plagued society. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible racial and gender biases in students' evaluations of instructors. It determined whether discrimination was evident when instructors were evaluated by students. Seventy-two college students viewed one of twelve short video tapes of a lesson taught by instructors possessing different characteristics. Participants were randomly assigned to one of the following conditions: white male, black male, white female, black female. Once the video tape had ended the participant completed a comprehension test, an instructor evaluation, and the BEM Sex Role Inventory. Males were found to evaluate African American males the highest and white males as the lowest, with Caucasian females falling in between respectively. Female students evaluated white males the highest and black males the lowest with black females and white females falling between, respectively. The results suggested that males and females did not evaluate the same professors who taught the very same lesson similarly. There were important differences in their perception of the same teacher.

9:45-10:00 a.m.
THE EFFECTS OF GOAL SETTING ON BASKETBALL FOUL-SHOOTING PERFORMANCE. Glen E. Getz, John Carroll University.
This study investigated the effects of goal setting on basketball foul-shooting performance. Thirty-nine male college intramural basketball players (mean age = 19.3; mean experience = 10.5 years) were randomly assigned to one of three goal groups: (a) short-term flexible (new goal set for each trial based on 10% improvement from previous trial performance), (b) short-term rigid (new goal set for each trial based on increments of 10% improvement from initial baseline performance), or long-term (ultimate goal of 40% improvement over baseline performance). It was predicted that all 3 groups would improve significantly and that the short-term flexible would improve the most. Participants shot 50 foul shots during each of 5 trials. A one between groups one repeated measures ANOVA (3 goal groups x 5 trials) revealed a significant main effect for trials. All 3 groups improved significantly from the baseline trial to the last trial but there were no significant differences among the 3 goal groups.


SESSION # 4 Cambridge Hall, Room 138

10:15-10:30 a.m.
ATTITUDES LEADING TO SITUATIONS OF SEXUAL COERCION AMONG AFRICAN-AMERICAN AND CAUCASIAN WOMEN. Tonya Ladipo, Kenyon College.
Twenty-five African-American women and twenty-five Caucasian women were the participants in this study. The participants ranged from eighteen to thirty years of age. Participants were from a similar socioeconomic background. The women were tested in small groups and were administered a survey concerning their attitudes about sexual coercion. The hypotheses stated that 1) African-American women have more egalitarian attitudes than Caucasian women, 2) African-American women are less dependent and more powerful in their relationships than Caucasian women, 3) the acceptance of rape myths will be greater among Caucasian women than African-American women, and 4) Caucasian women will be more accepting of interpersonal violence than African-American women. The hypotheses were found to be supported by the data. These results provide important implications in the socialization process of girls. It is recommended that more girls have strong female roles models in order to develop egalitarian attitudes, become more powerful and less dependent in interpersonal relationships, and to reject rape myths and interpersonal violence. This will lead to stronger women which will positively affect our society by rejecting male dominance of female sexuality.

10:30-10:45 a.m.
A STUDY OF THE EFFECTS OF RELIGIOSITY ON ATTITUDES TOWARDS WOMEN, SELF-ESTEEM, AND DEPRESSION. Stephanie L. Marhefka, Miami University.
A model was proposed in which the relationship between religion and depression was mediated by attitudes towards women and self-esteem. Longitudinal data were collected through multiple paper-and-pencil measures administered to a group of 103 Miami student volunteers. A one-month interim was given between data collection for Time 1 and Time 2 of the study. Pearson's correlations showed varying relationships between these variables when the sample was split by gender and by Catholic and Protestant denominations. Multiple regressions suggested that the path model is only partially illustrative of the subsample of women, men, Catholics, and Protestants. Following data analysis, interviews were conducted with 23 women from the study sample in order to illustrate and clarify the results of the study, as well to provide information for future research.

10:45-11:00 a.m.
PERSONALITY DIFFERENCES BETWEEN COLLEGE ATHLETES COMPETING IN POWER OVER, EMPOWERMENT AND SEXUALITY AS POWER: GENDER AND REACTIONS TO POWER STRATEGIES. Shannon Pierce and Sarah Murnen, Pd.D., Kenyon College.
Perceptions of male and female target individuals using different forms of power were tested among student participants. In Study 1, participants were presented with one of six scenarios (depicting a male or female using one of three forms of power) and asked to rate the individual on various 7-point scales. In Study 2, these character descriptions were followed by a short argument by the character and participants were asked to rate their agreement with the speaker in addition to the other dimensions. In Study 1, the "power over" strategy seemed to lead to the most negative perceptions of the target individuals and the "empowerment" strategy to the most positive perceptions. The use of sexuality by female targets was thought to be more influential with men and was also perceived to be more liked by men even thought they were viewed as less competent. In Study 2, male participants agreed most with a female speaker who used sexuality as power.


SESSION # 5 Cambridge Hall, Room 139

10:15-10:30 a.m.
DESIRE FOR CONTROL: ITS RELATIONSHIP TO OLFACTORY SENSITIVITY. Lisa Justice, John Carroll University.
The present study examined the effect of having a high desire for control on olfactory sensitivity. After completing the Desire for Control Scale, 46 university students smelled 21 vials containing 3 different chemicals, with 7 concentration levels for each chemical. The lowest detected concentration level was considered the threshold level of sensitivity for the participants. A regression analysis indicated that desire for control was strongly related (R= -.55. R= -,60) to olfactory sensitivity for 2 of the 3 chemicals used. This finding suggests that individuals that have a great need for control may be more sensitive to odors in their environment.

10:30-10:45 a.m.
DREAMING STYLE IS RELATED TO WAKING PERSONALITY Cynthia Van Keuren, Muskingum College.
Jung and Freud developed contrasting theories on the relationship between dreaming style and personality. Jung believed dreaming styles compensate for weaknesses in personality, while Freud believed that dreaming styles are a continuation of things experienced by our waking personality style. The current research sought to determine which theory better explains the relationship between dreaming style and waking personality. Participants completed both an 87-item Dream Questionnaire designed to measure dreaming style and the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator to measure waking personality style. The findings supported Freud's theory of continuity. Of the eight personality styles measured, only four were related to dreaming style. The discussion focuses on the implications of this relationship.

10:45-11:00 a.m.
PROJECTIVE DRAWINGS AS A MEASURE OF EXTERNALLY PRODUCED ANXIETY. Joni Zavatsky, Muskingum College.
Projective drawings are one of the most widely used techniques in clinical practice to indicate behavioral attributes. Based on research discussing indicators of these attributes, the present study focuses on which indicators may suggest anxiety. Forty-two male and female undergraduate students ranging in age 18 to 22 participated in this between subject design. Participants completed the Spielberger trait anxiety questionnaire prior to performing a series of simple drawings known as the House, Tree, Person (HTP) in either a stress induced condition or a no-stress condition. Upon completion of these drawings, state anxiety was measured by the Spielberger state anxiety questionnaire. Results indicate that the HTP drawings are sensitive to a stress induced state, but show no indication of sensitivity to trait. Statistics also support those of Handler and Reyher (1964) in that the absence and not presence of indicators may also suggest anxiety.


SESSION # 6 Cambridge Hall, Room 138

1:00-1:15 p.m.
MOTIVATIONS FOR VOLUNTEERING WITHIN MENTAL HEALTH. Billye J. Dailey, Muskingum College.
Volunteer motivations among four volunteer groups of mental health volunteers were explored. Omoto and Snyder (1995) assessed these motives among volunteers in an AIDS service organization using their Volunteer Motivation Scale (VMS). The 25 item scale assess five dimensions of motivation: Values, Community Concern, Understanding, Personal Development, and Esteem Enhancement. Using the VMS, 30 new trainees to a crisis hotline program, 27 current hotline volunteers, 11 psychiatric hospital volunteers, and 11 hotline volunteers with five months experience completed the VMS as well as an empathy scale, volunteer satisfaction scale, social responsibility scale, social support scale, and social desirability scale. Results revealed a common motivation profile for volunteers: Values, Community Concern, Understanding, Personal Development, and Esteem Enhancement. Groups did not differ in terms of satisfaction, social responsibility, social support, or social desirability. Humanitarian desires and concerns for the community were the most important motivation in volunteering services while selfish motivations were not.

1:15-1:30 p.m.
PROTECTIVE INTOLERANCE: THE TENDENCY TO DENIGRATE INDIVIDUALS POSSESSING NEGATIVE CHARACTERISTICS SIMILAR TO ONE'S OWN. Christine Fako, John Carroll University.
The present study investigated Protective Intolerance, the tendency for individuals possessing negative characteristics to be intolerant of their own negative characteristics in others. After indicating their most positive and negative personality traits, forty-eight university students were given personality descriptions of two individuals, one whose description matched the trait that they rated as their most negative trait and one whose description matched an equally negative trait that the participant indicated as not possessing. Each description included a scenario involving a wrong-doing and the participants were asked to recommend a penalty. Results indicated that participants assigned a harsher penalty to the individuals who possessed the same negative trait as they did. These findings suggest that perhaps in order to distance themselves from their negative traits and, thus, to protect their self-esteem, people are less tolerant of individuals possessing negative traits similar to their own.

1:30-1:45 p.m.
RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN PERFECTIONISM AND THE NEO BIG 5. April Lanzilotti, Muskingum College.
Past research has focused on perfectionism as a debilitating behavior. The present study utilized the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Frost) and the NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrea) to demonstrate two different types of Perfectionism: Positive Striving and Maladaptive Evaluation Concerns. Undergraduates' Perfectionism and Personality responses revealed a link between Positive Striving and the NEO Conscientiousness facet achievement-striving, whereas Maladaptive Evaluation Concerns was related to the Neuroticism facet depression. These findings suggest that Perfectionism may be motivating or debilitating.

1:45-2:00 p.m.
SIBLING CONFLICT AND THE FAMILY ENVIRONMENT. Kerry Malblanc, Muskingum College.
The purpose of this study was to identify the relationship between sibling conflict and the family environment. The study used three measures: (a) a Sibling Relations Grid that identified the sibling rival; (b) a Sibling Conflict Questionnaire that identified sibling rivalry, realistic conflicts, verbal aggression, achievement, and punishment; and the Family Environment Scale that identified six aspects of the family environment. A median split was used with the Sibling Conflict scores to create high and low conflict groups. The high conflict group scored significantly higher on the Family Environment Conflict dimension, and significantly lower on the Family Environment Cohesion dimension than the low conflict group. These two dimensions were also significantly related to the sibling conflict models. Conflict was positively and Cohesion negatively related to (a) sibling conflict, (b) realistic conflict, and (c) sibling rivalry. The results of this study do not overwhelmingly endorse either the sibling rivalry or realistic conflict models, but suggest that both models account for different and meaningful aspects of sibling conflict.


SESSION # 7 Cambridge Hall, Room 139

1:00-1:15 p.m.
THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN DIVORCE, PERCEIVED PARENTAL RESTRICTIVENESS, AND SOCIABILITY IN THE OFFSPRING. Russell E. Phillips III, Baldwin Wallace College.
Previous research has supported a strong negative correlation between perceived parental restrictiveness and sociability, but the relationship between divorce and sociability was less supported. This study examined the relationship between divorce, parental restrictiveness, and sociability through a 2 X 2 (quasi-experimental) Factorial Design. Subjects in this study were 102 volunteers from introductory and developmental psychology courses at a small Midwestern college. Sociability was measured by the Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale. Results demonstrated no differences for the main hypotheses, or for the relationship between moderating variables and sociability. Divorced children did rate their parents as less supportive, but no more restrictive, with more stress and lower incomes than those from intact families.

1:15-1:30 p.m.
ASSERTIVENESS TRAINING: IS IT EFFECTIVE? Kathleen Lamb, Bluffton College.
While many formats for assertiveness training programs exist, evidence of the effectiveness of these programs is generally lacking. Thus, the experimenter wish to find out if such a program was beneficial. A control group of seven Bluffton College students and an experimental group of nine Bluffton College students were given the Assertion Inventory at the beginning and end of a four-week training period during which the experimental group received assertiveness training using modeling of assertive responses, role-plays, feedback from the trainer on performances, and logging of behavior over the course of the week. Results indicated that there was a significant (p<.01) increase in assertiveness on both the discomfort and response probability dimensions of the inventory for the experimental group. Th control group experienced a just-significant (p<.05) increase from pretest to posttest on the discomfort dimension, but not on response probability. Even though there did appear to be a notable increase in mean differences between pretest and posttest scores for the experimental group, a longer training period might produce even greater results.

1:30-1:45 p.m.
ATTENUATION OF GENERALIZED FLAVOR AVERSION AFTER CONDITIONING TO A NON-PREEXPOSED STIMULUS. Robert J. Polewan, Angela S. Burch-Vernon, & David C. Riccio, Kent State University.
Attenuation of generalized flavor aversion has been observed after alternated preexposure of CS+ and CS- flavors. In this study rats received six preexposures to two flavored solutions [vanilla milk (B) or strawberry milk (C)] or water prior to conditioning. Twenty-four hours after the last preexposure session, all subjects were presented with a third flavor [chocolate milk (A)] paired with either LiCl or saline. A one-bottle consumption test in which subjects were presented with flavor A, B, or C was conducted 48 hours after conditioning. The present study demonstrates attenuated generalization after conditioning to a third, non-preexposed flavor. These results provide evidence that stimulus comparison during preexposure may not be required for reduction of generalized aversion.

1:45-2:00 p.m.
DEPLETION OF REGULATORY STRENGTH INCREASES THE TENDENCY TOWARD EGOTISM. Christine Gall, Case Western Reserve University.
Individuals by nature are egotistical, and the ability to present the self more modestly requires self-regulation. Prior work shows that when individuals engage in one act of self-regulation, they become depleted; in other words, their subsequent ability to self-regulate is reduced (Muraven, Tice, & Baumeister, in press). We predicted that individuals would demonstrate an increase in egotism if they first complete a task that requires self-regulation. Half the participants completed a task that required that they regulate their thoughts (depletion condition), whereas the remaining half completed a task that required no self-regulation (control). Afterwards, participants were presented a series of positive and negative trait adjectives on a computer and asked to indicate whether these adjectives described them or not. As hypothesized, depleted participants became more egotistical by endorsing more positive traits and fewer negative traits.


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