Background Information on Motivation
Motivation is an inner state of need or desire that activates an individual to do something that will satisfy that need or desire.
Because motivations derive from need or desires internal to the individual, others cannot "motivate" an individual but must manipulate environmental variables that may result in an increase or decrease of motivation.
Motivators exist on a continuum from intrinsic to extrinsic, describing the relationship of the goal to the activity necessary to secure it. Intrinsic motivators are goal and activity related, while extrinsic have little relationship to the goal or task.
Both types of motivators can be effective. Intrinsic motivators have the advantage of constancy; in other words, once an individual identifies the activity necessary to achieve the goal, it remains constant. Extrinsic motivators, on the other hand, involve prior assessment of the environment each time in order to determine the activity needed to achieve the desired end. But if an individual is unable to identify the necessary "trigger" activity, extrinsic motivators are the logical first-step.
Purpose of Motivation Strategies
The primary purpose of motivation strategies is to develop or to trigger an inner desire for beginning or completing an activity.
Advantages of Motivation Strategies
One advantage of motivation strategies is their applicability. They may be applied in a variety of contexts including school, work, and personal affairs. In addition, they may be used for any subject or task.
Another advantage is their flexibility. Motivation strategies may be modified to meet the needs of a particular individual, subject, or task. They may be used in combination to form an effective motivational program.
Specific Motivation Strategies
Some motivation strategies are intended for use by students, others are relevant to instructors, and some may be applied by both students and instructors. Students may benefit from the sense of control, health concerns, self-talk, support systems, personal goal chart, and motivation and class attendance strategies. Instructors might incorporate the student needs, relevance, make learning active, make teaching the catalyst for learning, level of task difficulty, and knowledge of evaluation results strategies into their course work and activities. The anxiety and voice tone, creating interest, changing attitudes, and desire to learn strategies are appropriate for both students and instructors.
It is important to remember that no one strategy is more powerful than others and that the strategies are interrelated. The effectiveness of the strategies varies by individual and situation. Though we tend to concentrate on those conditions to which we are most responsive, when one condition is out of our control, we should attempt to manipulate another condition.
The following motivational strategies are discussed in this page.